Has The Bible Been Discredited By Archaeology And Genetics? Critiquing A Recent Article

Joshua 16:10 “But they did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites live in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and they became forced laborers.”


Today I read a news article claiming that recent genetic testing and archaeology discredits the historical accuracy of the Bible. The title of the article: “Bible says Canaanites were wiped out by Israelites but scientists just found their descendants living in Lebanon”. Whenever one reads the title, let alone the article, where does one start? The writers make it sound like this serves a deathblow to the reliability and credibility of the Bible’s accuracy. As will be seen, a simple question can be asked: “Is there any proof that the skeptic has read the Book of Joshua, or the Old Testament, in making their case?” Below I will offer a simple critique of the article and demonstrate why it fails to disprove the narrative of Joshua. To make this evaluation as brief as possible, I will lay out in summary form the central idea of the article by constructing the following four-point argument:

1. The Bible claims that all the Canaanites were wiped out by the Israelites, per God’s command, thus there ought not to be modern-day descendants

2. Recent DNA testing from ancient Canaanite remains links genetically modern-day descendants

3. Therefore the Bible’s claim about the Canaanites being wiped out is false

4. Therefore it follows, the Bible is false

For those desiring to read the article in its entirety, the link is here: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/bible-canaanites-wiped-out-old-testament-israelites-lebanon-descendants-discovered-science-dna-a7862936.html

In order to respond to the claims made by this article, one only needs to deal with the first premise or statement in the above argument, namely: “The Bible claims that all the Canaanites were wiped out by the Israelites, per God’s command, thus there ought not to be modern-day descendants.”  One only needs to explore whether or not the Bible actually makes such a claim. If no evidence can be found for this central thought proposed in the article, then the arguments are invalidated. 

As we have noted already, if we simply ask the critic whether or not they have read the Biblical account, we find out quickly whether or not their arguments are solid. So, did the Israelites wipe out every single living Canaanite? Consider the following Biblical texts:

Joshua 16:10 “But they did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites live in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and they became forced laborers.”

Joshua 17:12 “But the sons of Manasseh could not take possession of these cities, because the Canaanites persisted in living in that land.”

Joshua 17:13 “It came about when the sons of Israel became strong, they put the Canaanites to forced labor, but they did not drive them out completely.”

Joshua 17:16 “The sons of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us, and all the Canaanites who live in the valley land have chariots of iron, both those who are in Beth-shean and its towns and those who are in the valley of Jezreel.”

As can be seen in the underlined texts of Joshua, there were still Canaanites living in the land after the Northern and Southern campaigns led by Joshua. As one goes later on into Old Testament history, we still find left-overs of the Canaanites. Take for instance the Jebusites who occupied what would become the city of Jerusalem during the beginning years of King David (2 Samuel 5). David’s driving out of the Jebusites and turning their stronghold into the famed “City of David” shows that Canaanites were still alive some 350 years after Joshua. 

Or how about even later still, in the New Testament, in Matthew 15:22 “And a Canaanite woman from that region came out and began to cry out, saying, “Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is cruelly demon-possessed.” This episode in the ministry of Jesus occurs over a millennium after the recorded events in Joshua. Canaanites were still around in Jesus day! He demonstrated incredible mercy to this woman – a profound lesson on the mercy of God!

If we take the Biblical data, the first premise of the above re-constructed argument is show invalid. In terms of the central point of the article, we then find that its insistence on the Bible being inaccurate is also rendered invalid. Whenever we find a skeptical argument rendered false by a simple reading of the Biblical text, whatever other details mentioned by the critic are rendered irrelevant. So what if Lebanese people are descendants of the ancient Canaanites? If there is evidence of survivors from the Canaanites throughout the Bible (which there are), then the information about the DNA linkage is just simply information and doesn’t overturn Biblical reliability, the existence of the God of the Bible nor the Christian worldview. 

Closing thoughts

The above evaluation ought to remind everyone who is a Jesus-follower and student of the Bible to be sure they know their Bibles. Sadly, too many unsuspecting Christians can be shaken by such a poorly researched article like the one written above. If we know our Bibles, we can say with confidence that it is accurate and that as always, any attempt to discredit the Bible fails in the long-run. 

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Death’s Obituary: Interpreting And Applying 1 Corinthians 15:55


1 Corinthians 15:54-55 (NASB) 54 But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory. 55 “O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting?”


Today’s post wants to consider Paul’s Old Testament quotations in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55, wherein He is announcing the victory of Jesus Christ over death by His resurrection from the dead. The quotes are interesting for a number of reasons – among those reasons being the fact that Paul is drawing from not one but two Old Testament references. What this post aims to do is two tasks:

1. To explore these quotations in terms of how Paul uses them in supporting his closing remarks in 1 Corinthians 15. 

2. To understand both the textual and theological features of the Old Testament texts from whence the quotations derive.

By exploring Paul’s Old Testament quotations and their theological and textual features, we will discover why his closing remarks are so potent in closing out his powerful argument for Christ’s resurrection. In short, what Paul is doing in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55 is declaring a sort of obituary concerning death, and Christ’s decisive victory by way of His resurrection. So with those sentiments, let’s dig into the text!

Paul’s use of Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:34 in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55

As we noted earlier, Paul quotes not just one – but two Old Testament texts. The NASB text of Isaiah 25:8 reads-

He will swallow up death for all time, and the Lord God will wipe tears away from all faces, and He will remove the reproach of His people from all the earth; for the Lord has spoken.”

This first line (in red) in Isaiah 25:8 is alluded by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:54, which reads in the NASB:

“But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, ‘Death is swallowed up in victory.‘” 

The second Old Testament text quoted by Paul in his closing remarks of 1 Corinthians 15:54-55 is from Hosea 13:14, which again the NASB renders:

“Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from death? O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting?
Compassion will be hidden from My sight.”

The red line highlighted in Hosea 13:14 is referenced by Paul in slightly different wording in 1 Corinthians 15:55 – 

“O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting?”

A read through Isaiah 25 and Hosea 13 and Hosea 14 reveal God’s intent to restore the nation of Israel not only to its former glory, but beyond to that of eschatological glory in the age to come. For the Old Testament prophets at least, the age of Israel’s restoration was set to occur at the end of history under the reign of the Messiah (see for example Ezekiel 37-39; Daniel 12; Joel 2; Amos 9; Zechariah 12-14). The concept of the people of Israel being resurrected at the end of history is alluded to and mentioned as occurring during this same future time-frame (see Job 14:14; 19:28; Ezekiel 37; Daniel 12). With these two main thoughts of “restoration” and “resurrection” being tied together in the prophets, connecting them with Messiah’s coming at the end of the age was how the Old Testament viewed the situation.

What made the aftermath of Jesus’ remarkable life and death so life-altering and history-altering was when the apostles began proclaiming that Jesus Christ had raised from the dead. Furthermore, for Paul to take texts like Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14 and apply them as having been initiated in their fulfillment by the resurrection of Jesus meant the “age to come” had broke into “this current age”. The Bible Knowledge Commentary summarizes Paul’s reason for utilizing these texts in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55:

“The apparent victories of Satan, in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:13) and on Golgotha (Mark 15:22–24) were reversed on the cross (Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14–15) and vindicated in the resurrection of Christ. From the vantage point of the certain resurrection of the saints, Paul voiced his taunt against death and Satan.” 

The Textual And Theological Features Of Paul’s Quotations In 1 Corinthians 15:54-55

Thus far we have summarized what Paul was quoting (Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14) in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55 and the point he was making (to show Christ’s decisive victory over death by His resurrection from the dead). Such an argument by Paul reminds one of an obituary of sorts – or what we could call “death’s obituary”. The textual and theological features of these quotations will be briefly considered. 

In the New Testament, we discover that whenever an author quotes or alludes to the Old Testament, they are using one of three sources: the Hebrew Old Testament, the Greek Old Testament (i.e the Septuagint, LXX) or some other version of the Old Testament (examples: Aramaic Targum or unknown version).

To mention the first reference used by Paul – Isaiah 25:8 – the verbs for “swallow” are different, indicating that Paul may had derived his quotation from another Old Testament version. Below we can see a comparison of the Greek Septuagint text of Isaiah 25:8 and the Greek New Testament text of 1 Corinthians 15:54b with translations:

Isaiah 25:8 (Septuagint) κατέπιεν ὁ θάνατος

                                          Death is gobbled up

1 Corinthians 15:54b Κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος.

                                         Death is swallowed up in victory


The theological context is that of Yahweh restoring His people and the earth to such a degree as to wipe out death itself. The curse is reversed in Isaiah 25, effectively disarming and dismantling the curse of Genesis 3. In Jesus’ victory over death, we discover that the beginning phase of God’s restorative efforts has begun! Paul’s entire argument in 1 Corinthians 15 is to show that all who are united to Jesus in saving faith have this restorative process initiated in themselves. Truly what we see here is an “already-not yet” reality.

So with this first text studied, what about the second text: Hosea 13:14? Again, we consider the text of 1 Corinthians 15:55, first in the Greek Text (SBL Text) with the English rendering of it:

1 Corinthians 15:55 “ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;

1 Corinthians 15:55 “Where for you, Oh Death, is the victory! Where for you, Oh death, is the sting?” 

The second person singular pronouns (in red) could just as easily refer to death’s ownership of victory and the sting it administers as to reference to Death as the object of Paul’s taunt. In modern editions of the Greek New Testament, question marks (in green) are shown as English semi-colons (;), thus, Paul is asking more of a rhetorical question here. It is obvious what has happened: Jesus has snatched the victory and sting of death from its jaws! The point of Paul’s quotation is to do a theological equivalency of “na na na na na” to death. Again, the quote is taken from Hosea 13:14, which is difficult to render from its Hebrew original. The Hebrew of Hosea 13:14 is as follows:

Hosea 13:14 (Hebrew text)  מִיַּ֤ד שְׁאוֹל֙ אֶפְדֵּ֔ם מִמָּ֖וֶת אֶגְאָלֵ֑ם אֱהִ֨י דְבָרֶיךָ֜ מָ֗וֶת אֱהִ֤י קָֽטָבְךָ֙ שְׁא֔וֹל נֹ֖חַם יִסָּתֵ֥ר מֵעֵינָֽי׃

English translations have difficulty rendering this text due to the fact that it is hard to decide whether the Lord is addressing His people in the form of a series of rhetorical questions (example: will I rescue you from the hand of Sheol? = מִיַּ֤ד שְׁאוֹל֙ אֶפְדֵּ֔ם) or is He addressing them with the promise to redeem (example: I will rescue you from the hand of Sheol. = מִיַּ֤ד שְׁאוֹל֙ אֶפְדֵּ֔ם). We find the major English translations handling Hosea 13:14 as follows:

A. ESV of Hosea 13:14 “I shall ransom them from the power of Sheol; I shall redeem them from Death.
O Death, where are your plagues? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion is hidden from my eyes. ”

B. NASB of Hosea 13:14  “Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from death?
O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion will be hidden from My sight.”

C. NIV of Hosea 13:14 “I will deliver this people from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death.
Where, O death, are your plagues? Where, O grave, is your destruction?”

D. KJV of Hosea 13:14  “I will ransom them from ithe power of the grave; I will redeem them from death:
O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: Repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.”

As can be seen, the issue of which sentences are to be interrogative sentences and which ones are to be declarative makes rendering this text a challenge for the interpreter. The NET Bible has excellent translators notes on this text, which I will place in the footnotes of this post for anyone wanting to dig even further.Even though the translation issues are difficult, they need not be impossible. Sometimes whenever we are attempting to translate the Hebrew, we can compare the Greek translation of the Old Testament (i.e Septuagint), which is rendered below along with an authorized English translation of the Septuagint Text:

Hosea 13:14 (Septuagint Greek text) “ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς, ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου, θάνατε; ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου, ᾅδη; παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου.”

Hosea 13:14 (Lexham English Septuagint)  “From the hand of Hades I will rescue, and from death I will ransom them. Where is your penalty, O death?
Where is your sting, O Hades? Comfort is hidden away from my eyes.”

Whenever we take the Septuagint text’s rendering of the first two sentences as declarations, we find God promising to restore His people. The next two sentences are rhetorical taunts against death, as seen in the interrogative pronouns (red) and question marks (green semi-colons). The final sentence then is God declaring to His people that (for the time being in their day), His comfort is hidden due to His wrath. Thankfully, Hosea 14 shows God’s true intention to redeem His people, which matches the first two sentences of Hosea 13:14. So whenever we compare the Greek Septuagint text of Hosea 13:14 to the portion of it quoted by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:55, what do we discover? Note the comparison of the portions in red:

Hosea 13:14 (Septuagint) “ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς, ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου, θάνατε; ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου, ᾅδη; παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου.”

1 Corinthians 15:55 (SBL Greek New Testament) ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;

Paul’s quotation differs from the Septuagint text by one definite article (τὸ = the) and two nouns (νῖκος = victory and θάνατε = death) , with the words in black (in 1 Corinthians 15:55) being synonyms. It seems Paul is taking the sense of the Septuagint text as capturing what He is conveying about the lopsided victory of Christ over death.

Closing thoughts:

Taunting death is Paul’s way of saying that what Christ achieved is decisive or, to put it another way, “an already done deal”. In the Hebrew text, we have Yahweh stating His intent to destroy death: אֱהִ֨י דְבָרֶיךָ֜ מָ֗וֶת אֱהִ֤י קָֽטָבְךָ֙ שְׁא֔וֹל = “I will make a decree against you, Oh death! I will destroy you, O Sheol!” In the Greek text of the Septuagint, we have God taunting his enemy death in what appears to be His inevitable victory over it. In short, we can use Paul’s quotation and use of Hosea 13:14 in 1 Corinthians 15:55 as an authoritative method of rendering Hosea 13:14. In Paul’s quotations of Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14, the point is being made: death has been decisively defeated. The restoration of redeemed humanity and the created order has begun in the resurrection of the Son of God. Whenever we consider the wider contexts of Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14, as well as their respective renderings in the Hebrew and Greek Septuagint, we discover how potent of a conclusion is drawn by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15. In short, Paul has spelled out death’s obituary, a victory anticipated by the prophetic Spirit operating through Isaiah and Hosea and fulfilled by Jesus’ resurrection from the dead. 


1. The translation of the first two lines of this verse reflects the interpretation adopted. There are three interpretive options to v. 14: (1) In spite of Israel’s sins, the LORD will redeem them from the threat of death and destruction (e.g., 11:8). However, against this view, the last line of 13:14 probably means that the LORD will not show compassion to Israel. (2) The LORD announces the triumphant victory over death through resurrection (cf. KJV, ASV, NIV). However, although Paul uses the wording of Hosea 13:14 as an illustration of victory over death, the context of Hosea’s message is the imminent judgment in 723–722 B.C. (3) The first two lines of 13:14 are rhetorical questions without explicit interrogative markers, implying negative answers: “I will not rescue them!” (cf. NAB, NASB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT). The next two lines in 13:14 are words of encouragement to Death and Sheol to destroy Israel. The final line announces that the LORD will not show compassion on Israel; he will not spare her.



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Exploring And Comparing Possible Backgrounds Of The “Two-Adam” Theology In Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 and 15:42-48


Romans 5:19 “For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous.”

1 Corinthians 15:45 “So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.”


Today’s post wants to consider the possible background informing Paul’s use of the “two-Adam” theology in Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 and 15:42-48. This blogger has written elsewhere on the theological meaning, life-practical application and Biblical significance of Paul’s two-fold comparison of Adam and Jesus Christ at the following blogposts:

1. http://www.growingchristianresources.com/2017/03/reflections-on-jesus-as-second-adam.html

2. http://www.growingchristianresources.com/2017/03/seeing-unity-of-bible-through-jesus-new.html

3. http://www.growingchristianresources.com/2017/03/life-practical-considerations-of-jesus.html

A brief explanation by what is meant by “Two-Adam” Theology

When I say “two-Adam” theology, I am referring to how the author or authors utilize Adam or more than one Adam to communicate their particular theological message. In the above posts that I just linked, the reader can discover how Paul’s “two-Adam” theology opens up the world  of the Bible in terms of the Bible’s unity, practical Christian living and deepening one’s understanding of Jesus Christ as the New Adam. In this particular post, we want to explore what if any connections there could be between Paul’s statements on the two Adams and other literature outside the New Testament that refer to similar themes. 

Craig A. Evans has compiled a very helpful book for students of New Testament studies entitled: “Ancient Texts For New Testament Studies – A Guide To The Background Literature”, published by Hendrickson publishers in 2005. The resource aids one greatly in referencing both the relevant Jewish and Graeco-Roman literature that was circulating in and around the composition of the New Testament. In as much as the New Testament documents are authoritative Divine revelation, they nonetheless were not revealed in a vacuum. I won’t even attempt to develop a detailed theory in this post outlining how such background literature may or may not influence the Biblical author’s thoughts, since each New Testament book may more or less be somewhat influenced are not influenced at all. Still, God used each author’s cultural and language competencies to compose the scriptures – including familiarity with all the relevant literature or lack thereof in their day.  

As one reads Evans’ book and consults his summaries of the various examples of Jewish and Graeco-Roman literature relevant to New Testament studies, one finds examples of material mentioning their own “two-Adam” theology. Below we find the following sources that mention the historic Adam of Genesis 1-2 in ways that somewhat parallel what we find in Paul’s use of Adam in Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 and 15:42-48.

1. Philo of Alexandria.

Philo was a first century Jew who lived in Alexandria Egypt and wrote in Greek. One can buy English versions of his voluminous works for a reasonable price and begin studying his thoughts. Philo’s writings chiefly provided spiritualized or allegorized commentaries on the books of the Old Testament and attempted to articulate Jewish thought in conjunction with Greek philosophy. According to Craig A. Evans in the book cited above, Philo makes some interesting comments distinguishing Adam in Genesis 1:26-28 (i.e “heavenly man”) from that of a more “earthly Adam” in his comments on Genesis 2:7. Evans cites several references within Philo’s works. For our sake I will only mention one example from Philo’s section where he answers various questions on Genesis, Volume 1, section 4. The following is Philo’s commentary on Genesis 2:7 in comparison to God’s creation of man in Genesis 1:26-27 – 

“What is the man who was created? And how is that man distinguished who was made after the image of God? (Genesis 2:7). This man was created as perceptible to the senses, and in the similitude of a Being appreciable only by the intellect; but he who in respect of his form is intellectual and incorporeal, is the similitude of the archetypal model as to appearance, and he is the form of the principal character; but this is the word of God, the first beginning of all things, the original species or the archetypal idea, the first measure of the universe.”

Philo then continues:

“Moreover, that man who was to be created as a vessel is formed by a potter, was formed out of dust and clay as far as his body was concerned; but he received his soul by God breathing the breath of life into his face, so that the temperament of his nature was combined of what was corruptible and of what was incorruptible. But the other man, he who is only so in form, is found to be unalloyed without any mixture…”.proceeding from an invisible.”

In having read the other Philonic citations mentioned by Evans on Philo’s “two-Adam” doctrine (Philo’s “Confusion Of The Tongues”, chapter 14, sections 62-64), the reader will find Philo making the Adam of Genesis 1 to be a “heavenly man” or archetype after which people must pattern their lives, while the Adam of Genesis 2 is viewed as a picture of humanity living for their own desires. 

So did Philo’s “two-Adam” theology influence Paul’s “two-Adam” theology? Evans offers the following assessment on page 172 of his book “Ancient Texts For New Testament Studies: 

“Philo’s distinction between the two-Adams is not precisely the same as Paul’s, but his language does illuminate the context in which Paul’s discussion may be better understood.”

New Testament scholar Stephen Hultgren wrote an article in the “Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (2003): 343-70, entitled: The Origin of Paul’s Doctrine of the Two Adams in 1 Corinthians 15.45-49.” The summary of his scholary article or “abstract” draws this conclusion concerning the possible relationship between Philo and Paul:

“Study of Philo, however, makes it unlikely that Paul is reacting either to Philo, to Alexandrian traditions, or even to a misrepresentation of Philo.”

In as much as Philo’s statements are remarkable, the conclusions drawn from the literature would rule out either any connection or at least some possible influence of Philo on Paul’s comparison between Adam and Jesus. So, are there any other sources of ancient period literature that could had possibly informed the literary backdrop for Paul’s comparison of the historic first Adam to Jesus Christ being the “Second Adam”? For brevity’s sake, we will consider one more class of sources, namely Aramaic commentaries on the Old Testament called “Targums”. 

2. Aramaic  Targums

By the days of Jesus, Jews in Israel were speaking Aramaic as the common language or lingua franca of the streets. The Jews likely would had known Koine Greek, the common language spoken all over the Medittaranean world (since they used the Greek Old Testament and the Apostle would later write the New Testament in Kine Greek). In the various Jewish meeting places (i.e “synagogues”) dotting the 1st century world from Rome to Jerusalem, the Old Testament scriptures would had been read and expounded from Aramaic translations called “Targum”. Craig Evans on page 185 of his book defines a “Targum”:

“The word ‘Targum,’, from the Aramaic word trgm, ‘to translate’, basically means a paraphrase or interpretive translation.”

Essentially, all but a few books in the Old Testament had Targums. Much like modern day commentaries or sermonic helps used by preachers in preparing sermons, Targums aided in interpretation, exposition and application of the Biblical text. Often-times there would be interesting commentary that would read extra-levels of interpretive imagination into how the text was understood. Craig Evans summaries of the Targums is sweeping in its scope and depth. On page 338 of his book – “Ancient Texts For New Testament Studies”, he comments on the Targum of the Psalms, and how they treated the creation texts referring to Biblical Adam:

“Paul has quoted a portion of Gen. 2:7, adding the words “first” and the proper name “Adam.” This manner of referring to Adam occurs at least five times in Targum Psalms (i.e, adam quedema; cf Psalm 49:2; 69:32; 92:1; 94:10). All of these references are to the Adam of the creation story, who offered sacrifice (Tg. Pss 69:32), uttered a song concerning Sabbath (Tg. Ps 92:1), and was taught knowledge by the Lord (Tg. Ps 94:10). Paul’s contrast between the first man, who is physical, and the second man, who is heavenly, has its counterpart to Philo (cf. Alleg. Interp. 1.31-32), commenting on Gen. 2:7, but the locution ‘First Adam’ is distinctly targumic.”

Thankfully, this blogger has the Logos version of the Aramaic Targums with Aramaic dictionaries to explore exactly what Evans was referencing. In researching Evans’ citations, the following Aramaic phrase, אדם קדמא (Adam Qedema), or variations of it, translated “First Adam” or “Former Adam” appears in the above cited texts. In 1 Corinthians 15:45, Paul uses the phrase “ο πρωτος ανθρωπος αδαμ” (ho protos anthropos adam), translated “the first man Adam”, which is equivalent to the Aramaic phrase we find in the Targums. Elsewhere in 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 and Romans 5:12-21, Paul refers to the historic Adam by using variations on this phrase or phrases with similar meaning. 

These Aramaic Targums, which would had been familiar to Jewish audiences throughout 1st century Israel (called by historians ancient “Palestine”), would also had been known to Paul, since the Jewish teachers or Rabbi’s that he had learnt the scriptures would had referenced such resources. To cite once more from the journal article cited earlier from Stephen Hultgren:

“The closest parallels to Paul from the history of religion are found in rabbinic literature. Paul knew Palestinian exegetical traditions about a first and last Adam. His encounter with the risen Christ gave concrete form to that abstract idea.”


The world of the New Testament is doubtless a fascinating world. Today’s post wanted to explore the possible backdrop to Paul’s “two-Adam” theology that we find in Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:20-23 and 15:42-45. In so far as this blogger considers Paul’s writings as authoritative Divine, inerrant and infallible revelation, such documents also bare the background and language of their human authors. This reminds us that the Bible can be studied with the standard tools of historical investigation and language study, yielding forth further proof as to its reliability and richness. We considered two ancient sources outside the New Testament for consideration of whether or not they influenced Paul’s thought.

The first was Philo. We discovered that in as much as he did have a sort of “two-Adam theology”, it seems that his influence on Paul’s thinking was at best very minimal to non-influential.

The second possible influence on Paul’s thinking about “Two-Adam theology” were the Aramaic Targums. We discovered that the formulation of the phrase “first-Adam” might very well had informed Paul’s phraseology in how he compares Jesus (“The Second-Adam) to the historic “First-Adam” of Genesis 1:26-28 and 2:7). We can say that, at bare minimum, the linkage between the Targums and Paul’s thinking seem more promising.

From surveying a sample of the scholarly literature on Paul’s two-Adam theology, what can be said? It definitely appears that Paul’s development of contrasting the first Adam to Christ was drawn mainly from Paul’s dramatic encounter with the post-resurrection Christ in his calling to Apostleship. Other titles used of Christ in the New Testament (i.e “Son of Man”; “Messiah” or “Christ”) have similar indirect parallels in the available Jewish literature and each evidence a unique reformulation of their meaning in light of Christ’s resurrection and ascension into Heaven. If Paul is in any fashion drawing from background literature like the Targums, the influence is quite minimal in comparison to the one event that forever altered Paul’s thinking and life: namely his encounter with the post-resurrected Jesus. Indeed, we can gain a deeper appreciation for how Jesus Christ would be the “Second-Adam” or “Last-Adam” due to His decisive revelation of being God in human flesh and rising from the dead, providing salvation to all who believe.    





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Studying Romans 5:1-5 in English and Greek – God’s Process Of Making The Christ-Follower More Like Jesus



Romans 5:1-5 is a powerful portion of Paul’s letter to the church at Rome, reminding the reader of the benefits that flow from justification by faith. Such benefits are designed by God to work forth a process whereby the Christ-follower is made more and more like Jesus in their experience of being justified by faith. Such a process is part-and-parcel of what the Bible refers to as “sanctification” (see 1 Corinthians 6 and 1 Thessalonians 4:1-3).

Today’s post is going to dig deeper into Romans 5:1-5 by a tool called  “grammatical diagramming”. The phrase “grammatical diagram” refers to showing relationships between words, phrases and clauses within the given passage. Such a method provides the foundation for preachers developing homiletical outlines for sermons, teachers – lessons and deepening oneself in the text. Such a grammatical study can be done on either the English or underlying original language of the Biblical text (Hebrew/Aramaic for the Old Testament; Greek for the New Testament).

To ensure that our attempt at diagramming Romans 5:1-5 will prove beneficial, we will base any labeling and formatting upon the particular approach to diagramming advocated by George H. Gutherie and J. Scott Duvall in their manual: “Biblical Greek Exegesis – A Graded Approach To Learning Intermediate And Advanced Greek”. 

This blogger has chosen this work due to Gutherie and Duvall’s statement in equipping pastors and students of scripture with this approach, as stated on page 18 of their manual: “God calls us to a life of study toward a deeper understanding of Scripture for both personal edification and ministry to others.” What follows below is a suggested method for digging deeper into the text.

A quick life-practical word about Romans 5:1-5 and how we will proceed in this post

Romans 5:1-5 is an excellent text to try out this method, since it not only explains the benefits of Christian salvation, but also how God continues working in the believer’s life to develop them as a people of God growing in love with Jesus.  In what will follow, I will outline Romans 5:1-5 as it appears in the NASB (New American Standard Bible) and the 1550 edition of the Greek New Testament by Robert Stephanus. Along the way I will offer any clarifying comments so that readers can follow along and benefit from the study.


Romans  5:1 (NASB) 

(Assertion, result following from prior chapter) “Therefore,”

(result clause) having been justified by faith,

(simultaneous result) we have peace with God

                         (agency) through our Lord Jesus Christ

Romans 5:1 (Greek Text)

(Assertion, result following from Romans 4) ουν

(result clause) δικαιωθεντες εκ πιστεως 

(simultaneous result) ειρηνην εχομεν προς τον θεον

                         (agency) δια του κυριου ημων  ιησου χριστου

Comment: When the label “assertion” is used, it indicates Paul making a statement of fact. What follows from the assertion are the results of having been justified by faith. The first “simultaneous result” is that the believer begins experiencing peace with God and continues experiencing such. The Greek text’s main verb, translated “we are having”, is a present, active, indicative that emphasizes progressive, ongoing action. The label “agency” is defined by Gutherie and Duvall as being the personal agent performing the action. The Personal agent “through whom” these blessings flow from justification into progressive sanctification is Christ. Christ is the grounds for our justification by way of His accomplished work. In the next few verses, the Person of the Holy Spirit will be mentioned. His involvement in our sanctification has more so to do in applying what Jesus has accomplished. Relevant cross-references that speak of our peace with God, Christ’s accomplished work and agency and the Spirit’s agency in our sanctification are 1 Corinthians 2:10-13; 3:6; Ephesians 1:7; Philippians 4:6-7 and 1 John 2:1-2.  

Romans 5:2 (NASB)

             (explanation)through whom also we have obtained our introduction                                        (means) by faith into this grace

                                                        (sphere) in which we stand;

             (result #1)            and we exult in hope of the glory of God.

Romans 5:2 (Greek Text) 

                (explanation)δι ου και την προσαγωγην εσχηκαμεν                                         (means) τη πιστει εις την χαριν ταυτην                                                             (sphere)  εν η εστηκαμεν                       (result)           και καυχωμεθα

                                        (basis)    επ ελπιδι της δοξης του θεου

Comments: Now Paul is going to further clarify what he meant when he referred to Jesus Christ as the one “through whom” these blessings of justification flow. The verb translated in the NASB as “we have obtained” is in the Greek text a perfect tense verb, indicating the beginning of something in the past with continuing, ongoing results in the here and now. This same verb is an “active, first person”, meaning that we who are believers in Christ are active participants in this access won for us by Christ. When we see the next label “means”, we find that saving faith is the “means” by which such benefits are received and enjoyed. The label “sphere” has to do with the believer’s status of “standing in” or “enjoying such blessings. So then, what are the results of being justified by faith and thus gaining access to God through Christ? rejoicing! boasting in God! Any ability the Christian has to rejoice in God is based upon (hence the label “basis”) the hope of God delivered in the Gospel. 

Romans 5:3 (NASB) 

        (result #2) And not only this, but we also exult

                            (sphere) in our tribulations,

        (simultaneous) knowing that

        (circumstance) tribulation brings about perseverance 

Romans 5:3 (Greek Text)

          (result #2) ου μονον δε αλλα και καυχωμεθα

                              (sphere) εν ταις θλιψεσιν

          (simultaneous) ειδοτες οτι

          (circumstance) η θλιψις υπομονην κατεργαζεται

Comments: Whether we are reading Romans 5:3 in English or Greek, the idea of God using trials in our life to mold our character is not easy to think about. Nevertheless, Paul lists boasting in the “sphere” or domain of such trials as a second outcome of the hope acquired from having been justified by faith. In the last clause of Romans 5:3, the NASB renders the following: “tribulation brings about perseverence”. The verb translated “brings about” could also be rendered “working out”. The imagery of  “working out” a splinter or of doing a “work out” to achieve greater physical endurance comes to mind. The resistance brought about by trials is used by God to strengthen our resolve and reliance upon Him (see 2 Corinthians 4:18; James 1:2-4 and 1 Peter 1:6-7). 

Romans 5:4 (NASB)

        (sequence) and perseverance,

        (sequence) proven character;

        (sequence) and proven character, hope;

Romans 5:4 (Greek Text)

        (sequence) η δε υπομονη

        (sequence) δοκιμην

        (sequence) η δε δοκιμη ελπιδα

Comments: In Romans 5:4 we find the labels “sequence” indicating a series of nouns used by Paul to express a progression of character building in the Christian. The word translated “endurance” comes from a root referring to “remaining under” someone or something that is applying pressure. The next noun, translated by the NASB as “proven character”, speaks of a piece of metal that is tempered through the process of intense heat. With this progression then comes the last term – “hope”. In this progression, it appears that the Christian comes to appreciate the Divine hope of the Gospel more in the face of situations that appear “hopeless”. Desperation for God, His Word and all the other graces He gives increases whenever the normal resources for coping with life (friends, finances, so-called “easy times”) are either short in supply or utterly absent. 

Romans 5:5 (NASB)

(assertion) and hope does not disappoint,

         (inference) because the love of God has been poured                                   out within our hearts

                              (agency) through the Holy Spirit who was                                                   given to us.

Romans 5:5 (Greek Text)

(assertion) η δε ελπις ου καταισχυνει

        (inference) οτι η αγαπη του θεου εκκεχυται εν ταις                                        καρδιαις ημων

                              (agency) δια πνευματος αγιου του δοθεντος                               ημιν

Comment: In this final verse, we find another “assertion” clause, indicating a statement of fact by the Apostle Paul. Such hope does not “disappoint”. Why? The label called “inference” points to the emptying process that can occur in the experience of intense trial. God’s love has an easier time “filling in” the places of the Christian’s life that might not had been accessible if times and seasons would had been easier.  The final label, “agency”, now points us to the Third Person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, Who is regulating both us and the course of experiences, trials and blessings to bring about the Christ-like qualities He wants to bring forth. Paul’s whole point in these first five verses is to show how God is making us by experience whom He has declared us to be in justification – namely the righteousness of God in Christ. 

Final thoughts and life application:

diagramming” of the Biblical text in English or in Greek. Such a tool is an example of how one can go about the initial steps in preparing a sermon, a Bible lesson or digging deeper into the text for one’s own edification. We looked at Romans 5:1-5 to discern what benefits flow from having been justified by faith. One could say that we are justified by faith “unto” the following benefits: peace with God, hope in God, strengthening by God and love from God. Such truths can prove very helpful to believers who are going through difficult times. Romans 5:1-5 reminds us that the Christian life is not promised immunity from trouble. Nevertheless, God’s promise to us in justification is that He will be with us every step of the way as we progress in sanctification through this life while looking forward to his glorification or completion of our redemption in eternity (compare Philippians 1:6; Jude 1:24-25).  

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How A Recent Book Increases Confidence In The Reliability Of The New Testament Text


John 7:53-8:11  7:53“Everyone went to his home. 8:1 But Jesus went to the Mount of Olives. 2 Early in the morning He came again into the temple, and all the people were coming to Him; and He sat down and began to teach them. 3 The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery, and having set her in the center of the court, 4 they said to Him, “Teacher, this woman has been caught in adultery, in the very act. 5 Now in the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women; what then do You say?” 6 They were saying this, testing Him, so that they might have grounds for accusing Him. But Jesus stooped down and with His finger wrote on the ground. 7 But when they persisted in asking Him, He straightened up, and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.” 8 Again He stooped down and wrote on the ground. 9 When they heard it, they began to go out one by one, beginning with the older ones, and He was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the center of the court. 10 Straightening up, Jesus said to her, “Woman, where are they? Did no one condemn you?” 11 She said, “No one, Lord.” And Jesus said, “I do not condemn you, either. Go. From now on sin no more.”


The account of the woman caught in adultery and Jesus’ exoneration of her from being stoned is perhaps one the most beloved portions in John’s Gospel. However, the textual history of these twelve verses has caused many New Testament scholars today to doubt their authenticity. Although English translations such as the KJV and NKJV include these verses as original to John’s Gospel, more recent translations and even recent critical editions of the Greek New Testament raise questions. Translations such as the New American Standard Bible (NASB) use brackets or double brackets to distinguish John 7:53-8:11 from the surrounding text. Other translations such as the English Standard Version (ESV) have a textual note such as the following:

“[The earliest manuscripts do not include 7:53–8:11.]”

One recent edition of the Greek New Testament, the SBL text (produced by the Society Of Biblical Literature) has chosen to not even include John 7:53-8:11 in it’s text of John’s Gospel! In the footnotes section at the end of this post, I have included the full Greek Text of John 7:53-8:11 for those wanting to see what the text looks like in the original language.1

Whenever we see such notations or treatments of the Biblical text such as the examples above, what are we to conclude? Indeed, one must be honest when dealing with any portion of scripture. There are times when the science of textual criticism can aid greatly in showing which readings are original and which were the result of later scribes hand-copying the ancient Greek manuscripts and other ancient versions. But is the wide-spread doubt of John 7:53-8:11 being original to John’s Gospel warranted? This blogger thinks not and has recently completed reading a wonderful book that asserts the confidence one can have in the New Testament text.

Author James Snapp Jr. has written a thorough and clear book entitled: “A Fresh Analysis Of John 7:53-8:11 – With a Tour Of The External Evidence”. The book does contain some technical discussions and examples of citations from Greek and Latin sources. Nonetheless, Snapp translates each source he cites, making the book accessible for any reader wanting to better understand the textual issues surrounding John 7:53-8:11. In the Amazon electronic edition I read, we find the following summary:

Because John 7:53-8:11 (the pericope adulterae — the passage about the adulteress) is not found in some early manuscripts, some scholars have called for the removal of the passage from the text of the Gospels. In response, textual critic James Snapp Jr. offers this informative defense of the genuineness of the passage, with a detailed analysis of external and internal evidence (much of which is hardly ever mentioned in popular commentaries). Snapp offers a definitive explanation of why the passage, originally part of the text of the Gospel of John, is not in some early manuscripts, and why, in some other manuscripts, the passage is found in different locations in the Gospels-text.

The book’s central idea is stated as follows:

“In the case at hand, I submit the following hypothesis: John 7:53-8:11 was in an exemplar used by a copyist in Egypt in the mid-100’s-having descended to it from the autograph.”

When James Snapp refers to “exemplar”, he is speaking of a source document from which other copies were made. In terms of the term “autograph”, this has to do with the original manuscripts of the New Testament documents composed by the Apostles or their associates under the Divine inspiration of the Holy Spirit. With his main thesis stated, Snapp will then answer the following question: what evidence does the book contain for John 7:53-8:11 as being original to John’s Gospel?

First, Snapp explores the so-called “External Evidence” (that is, all the available Greek copies of John, ancient translations and texts of John 7:53-8:11 as they appear in ancient church scripture reading materials or “lectionaries”). Below is a summary of the “external evidence” explored in the book:

1. Early Greek Manuscripts (that is, ancient hand-written copies of John’s Gospel from the fourth centuries onward)

2. Early Versions (that is, ancient translations from the Greek manuscripts)

3. Lectionaries (that is, scriptures read by the early church in their annual observances of Christian holidays and feasts)

4. Writings of the early church (that is, books written by the generations of church leaders following the Apostles. These leaders were known as “the church fathers”)

5. Marks that accompany John 7:53-8:11 (or 8:3-11) in some copies (that is, scribal marks or symbols in the ancient manuscripts that contained or did not contain John 7:53-8:11)

6. Notes about John 7:53-8:11 in some copies (that is, editorial notes contained in manuscripts explaining why the passage was kept or excluded)

7. Variations in the location of the passage (that is, John 7:53-8:11 occurring at the end of John in some manuscripts or in Luke 21 in other manuscripts) 

8. Augustine’s Theory of Excision (that is, the 5th century church father Augustine’s knowledge of the nature of John 7:53-8:11 and why it is missing in some manuscripts.

After the external evidence, Snapp then explores the language, vocabulary and relationship of John 7:53-8:11 to the rest of John’s Gospel, or what is called “the internal evidence”. Then as a third and final area of focus in putting the issues of John 7:53-8:11 into view, Snapp deals with general discussions of the passage by New Testament scholarship. Such conversations entail apologetical concerns one may have in preaching situations or conversations with unbelievers. Overall, James Snapp covers much ground in his relatively short work (106 pages). The coverage is thorough and the arguments made present a compelling case for John 7:53-8:11 being original to John’s Gospel and worthy of being preached and treated as inspired scripture by Christians in their everyday lives. 


In reading Snapp’s work, this author has been reinforced in the conclusion that John 7:53-8:11 is original to John’s Gospel and worthy of the title “inspired, canonical scripture” beyond a reasonable doubt. Readers can click on the following link where I review James Snapp’s book. https://www.amazon.com/review/R3AP98L9IB7RSK/ref=pe_1098610_137716200_cm_rv_eml_rv0_rv

I commend it to anyone desiring to increase their confidence in the reliability of the New Testament text (as well as the fact the book only costs $0.99 as a Kindle download)!


1. John 7:53-8:11 (Greek Text) 7:53 και επορευθη εκαστος εις τον οικον αυτου 8:1 ιησους δε επορευθη εις το ορος των ελαιων 2 ορθρου δε παλιν παρεγενετο εις το ιερον και πας ο λαος ηρχετο προς αυτον και καθισας εδιδασκεν αυτους
3 αγουσιν δε οι γραμματεις και οι φαρισαιοι προς αυτον γυναικα εν μοιχεια κατειλημμενην και στησαντες αυτην εν μεσω 4 λεγουσιν αυτω διδασκαλε αυτη η γυνη κατειληφθη επαυτοφωρω μοιχευομενη 5 εν δε τω νομω μωσης ημιν ενετειλατο τας τοιαυτας λιθοβολεισθαι συ ουν τι λεγεις
6 τουτο δε ελεγον πειραζοντες αυτον ινα εχωσιν κατηγορειν αυτου ο δε ιησους κατω κυψας τω δακτυλω εγραφεν εις την γην 7 ως δε επεμενον ερωτωντες αυτον ανακυψας ειπεν προς αυτους ο αναμαρτητος υμων πρωτος τον λιθον επ αυτη βαλετω 8 και παλιν κατω κυψας εγραφεν εις την γην
9 οι δε ακουσαντες και υπο της συνειδησεως ελεγχομενοι εξηρχοντο εις καθ εις αρξαμενοι απο των πρεσβυτερων εως των εσχατων και κατελειφθη μονος ο ιησους και η γυνη εν μεσω εστωσα 10 ανακυψας δε ο ιησους και μηδενα θεασαμενος πλην της γυναικος ειπεν αυτη η γυνη που εισιν εκεινοι οι κατηγοροι σου ουδεις σε κατεκρινεν 11 η δε ειπεν ουδεις κυριε ειπεν δε αυτη ο ιησους ουδε εγω σε κατακρινω πορευου και μηκετι αμαρτανε


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The Importance Of Including The Greek Old Testament – The Septuagint – In One’s Study Of The Bible

Jonah 1:1-3 Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος κυρίου πρὸς Ιωναν τὸν τοῦ Αμαθι λέγων 2᾿Ανάστηθι καὶ πορεύθητι εἰς Νινευη τὴν πόλιν τὴν μεγάλην καὶ κήρυξον ἐν αὐτῇ, ὅτι ἀνέβη ἡ κραυγὴ τῆς κακίας αὐτῆς πρός με. 3καὶ ἀνέστη Ιωνας τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου καὶ κατέβη εἰς Ιοππην καὶ εὗρεν πλοῖον βαδίζον εἰς Θαρσις καὶ ἔδωκεν τὸ ναῦλον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνέβη εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦ πλεῦσαι μετ᾽ αὐτῶν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου. (Septuagint, Greek Old Testament)

Jonah 1:1 “NOW the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city, and preach in it; for the cry of its wickedness is come up to me. But Jonas rose up to flee to Tharsis from the presence of the Lord. And he went down to Joppa, and found a ship going to Tharsis: and he paid his fare, and went up into it, to sail with them to Tharsis from the presence of the Lord.” (Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint)

Jonah 1:1 The word of the Lord came to Jonah the son of Amittai saying, 2 “Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and cry against it, for their wickedness has come up before Me.” 3 But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.(NASB)


Today’s post will aim to aquaint the reader with the Greek translation of the Old Testament – the Septuagint, and its significance for studying the scriptures. Over the years I have found acquaintance with the Septuagint to be helpful in the study of both Old and New Testament scriptures. Thankfully, one does not have to know Greek to study the Septuagint. English translations such as the one quoted above from Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton are available for free online here: https://archive.org/details/septuagintversio1879bren

Whenever the New Testament authors quote the Old Testament, the vast majority of those quotations derive from the Greek Old Testament. Knowing such a feature of the New Testament ought to prompt at least a peek into the Septuagint. What makes the Greek Old Testament a fascinating study is in how it came to be used in both the ancient Jews and later Christian congregations spawning from the days of Christ and the Apostles. Pictured below is a page from a 5th century A.D. Greek manuscript known as Codex Siniaticus, which contains both the Old and New Testament in Greek:


Before we get to the Septuagint, we need to first understand the original language text of the Old Testament – the Hebrew Bible. Additionally, the Dead Sea Scrolls and their relevance to the Septuagint in studying the text of scripture will also be briefly considered. The following overview will be but a quick fly-over, with the goal to arrive at noting a couple of significant reasons for gaining further familiarity with the Greek translation of the Old Testament – The Septuagint. 

A quick overview of the Hebrew Bible and its relationship to our English Bible

Whenever we study the Old Testament, we typically will begin with whichever English translation we have in our possession. The King James, New King James and the Modern English Version have their Old Testaments based upon the 16th century Hebrew Bible edited by Jacob ben Hayyim ibn Adonijah (called the “Ben Chayyim Text” or “Bomberg Bible”). Virtually every modern English translation on the market has for its underlying text in the Old Testament the Hebrew text of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgarnsia. The reason why English translations of the Old Testament rely upon the Hebrew text is due to it being the original language in which God revealed the Old Testament (with 2-3% accounting for Aramaic portions in Daniel and Ezra and a couple verses in Genesis and Jeremiah).

The Hebrew Bible as we have it today in the academic critical editions of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgarnsia is based upon high quality Hebrew manuscripts from the Middle Ages, chiefly of which is found in what is believed to be the best representative of the Hebrew textual tradition, the Lenningrad Codex manuscript from the 11th century A.D (pictured below):



The Hebrew text of these manuscripts derives from copyists and scribes called the “Masoretes”. The Masoretes spent centuries developing a system of vowel points and textual markings to preserve the pronunciation and sentence structure of the Hebrew text for purposes of public reading and study. Although the manuscripts of the Masoretic text derive from the earlier part of the Middle Ages, the origins of the text go back much further and represents the most important resource for recovering the original text of the Hebrew Bible.

A quick overview of the Dead Sea scrolls and their relevance to bridging us from the Hebrew Masoretic Text to the Greek Old Testament

Many readers will undoubtedly recognize reference to the so-called Dead Sea Scrolls – hundreds of scrolls discovered in the late 1940’s in 11 caves around the Dead Sea area. We won’t focus too much on the Dead Sea Scrolls, only to say that their dating takes us back to a full 1,000 years before the Masoretic Hebrew manuscripts mentioned above. Below is a picture of one of the Dead Sea Scrolls – the so-called “Isaiah Scroll” from Cave 4 (image from Benchmark Books):


What makes the Dead Sea Scrolls interesting as a collection is that over 50% or more of the wording in those manuscripts  supports readings we find the Masoretic text. The majority of the remaining wording and sentence structure of the Dead Sea Scrolls matches what we find in the first translation ever made of the Hebrew Old Testament – The Greek translation of the Septuagint. Below is pictured what scholars believe to be the current possible relationship between the Hebrew Moseretic text, the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Greek Septuagint (at least to the King James Version, but roughly speaking, we can trace a similar lineage to other English translations). 


The Value of the Greek Old Testament – The Septuagint – To The Study Of The Biblical Text

Having surveyed both the Hebrew Old Testament and the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now turn to the intended focal point of this post – the Septuagint. When we say “Septuagint”, the Greek Septuagint was the first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, beginning with the Pentateuch or first five books of Moses in 275 b.c. Throughout the centuries leading up to within a century before Christ,the remainder of the Septuagint translation project would eventually get completed. This fact of the Septuagint being the first translation makes it invaluable and fascinating for studying the Old Testament text. As seen in the opening quotation of Jonah 1:1-3, reliable English translations of the Greek Septuagint are available in print and electronic form.

A second significant reason to include the Greek Old Testament in one’s study of the Biblical text is not only for Old Testament, but New Testament studies. The presence of the Greek Old Testament among the Jews of Jesus’ day is  demonstrated by the amount of times the Apostles quote it when referring to the Old Testament in the Gospels, Acts, Epistles and Revelation. Bible Scholar Michael S. Heiser writes in the 2010 volume of the periodical “Bible and Spade”, Volume 23:1, in an article: “The Role Of The Septuagint In The Transmission Of The Scriptures” on how the Septuagint related to the ministry of Jesus, the Apostles and the early church:

“The real lesson that we learn from the transmission and use of the LXX is that the apostles—and Jesus himself— had no qualms about considering that translation the true Word of God. There is no evidence that Jesus or Paul or any other NT writer preferred a personal text over the texts available in synagogues, or that the hand-copied texts in synagogues had no variation. The fact that there were several non-identical Hebrew OT texts and Greek translations of those texts in circulation at the time generated no interest from Jesus and the apostles. What Providence had supplied and preserved was deemed completely sufficient. The early Church had the same attitude. Most Christians in the first four centuries of the Church could read only Greek. The LXX was their complete Bible.”

Closing thoughts:

Today we began considering the importance of the Septuagint in the study of the Bible. We noted its history and relationship to the Hebrew Bible, the Dead Sea scrolls and the ministry of Jesus and the Apostles. We also saw its importance in being a major witness to the history of the Old Testament by virtue of it being the world’s first translation of the Hebrew text. Finally, we noted briefly how good English translations of the Septuagint are available today, making access to the Septuagint a feasible endeavor for those desiring to study it. 



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Taking a Closer Look At The Meaning Of God’s Wrath In Romans 1:18


Romans 1:18 “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness.” (NASB)

Romans 1:18 “αποκαλυπτεται γαρ οργη θεου απ ουρανου επι πασαν ασεβειαν και αδικιαν ανθρωπων των την αληθειαν εν αδικια κατεχοντων.” (Stephanus’ Greek Text 1550)


Perhaps no attribute of God is more shunned by theologians, preachers and Christians nor is any Divine attribute more despised by the unbelieving culture than God’s wrath. I say this to underscore what the Apostle Paul emphasizes in the beginning part of his discussion of the Gospel in Romans 1:18 – namely the wrath of God. In this post I want to sketch out the meaning, theological-significance and life-practical importance of God’s wrath.

Understanding The Meaning Of God’s Wrath In Romans 1:18 And The Wider Biblical Material

The word Paul uses in Romans 1:18 to describe God’s wrath is the word “orge” (οργη). To grasp this word’s meaning, we will first consider the meaning of the word itself and then follow-up with what the remainder of the Old and New Testament has to teach on God’s wrath.

To begin with the meaning of “orge” in Romans 1:18, theologian James Leo Garrett in his Systematic Theology defines “orge” as follows:

“Orgē, meaning “wrath, anger, or indignation,” is the more generally used term and is to be found especially in Romans and in Revelation. Sometimes this wrath is specifically directed at unbelievers or the disobedient (John 3:36; Rom. 1:18; Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6). Law with its consequent disobedience brings forth wrath (Rom. 4:15), divine wrath expresses vengeance (Rom. 12:19), and such wrath can even be executed by civil rulers (Rom. 13:4c, 5). Elsewhere the reference is to future wrath to come (Matt. 3:7; 1 Thess. 1:10; 5:9; Rom. 2:5, 8; 5:9).”

In Louw and Nida’s Greek Lexicon of Semantic Domains, the thrust of this word’s meaning is described as follows:

“Though the focal semantic element in ὀργή is punishment, at the same time there is an implication of God’s anger because of evil. Therefore, it is possible in some languages to translate this expression in Ro 3:5 as ‘God does not do wrong when he is angry and punishes us, does he?’”

One of the greatest expositors of the twentieth century, Donald Grey Barnhouse, preached a series of sermons on the book of Romans. In his sermon on Romans 1:18, he noted how the two leading Greek words in the Greek New Testament translated “wrath” deal with the heat of God’s anger or displeasure, and how it is dispensed against sin. One of those words (“thumos”) speaks of His wrath poured out in volume and immediacy, whereas our word in Romans 1:18 “orge” has to do with God’s displeasure released in a gradual fashion or retained until a later time. 

As one surveys the over 180 Old and New Testament passages concerning God’s wrath and the various corresponding Hebrew and Greek words rendered by our English word “wrath”, the following insights come into view:

a. Over 30 places in the Old Testament depict God’s wrath as his displeasure expressed in fatherly discipline towards His people or as a broken-hearted husband toward and unfaithful wife. In 2 Chronicles 36:21 for instance we read: “but they continually mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against His people, until there was no remedy.” The Hebrew word translated “wrath” is ch-math (חֲמַת) and has a similar meaning to the Greek word discussed above. Not once do we find God’s wrath expressed in a capricious fashion in any of these instances or in all of the other contexts we find the concept of wrath in the Bible.

b. In at least 22 places in the Old Testament we find God’s wrath expressed as a King whose subjects (the nation of Israel) have committed treason against His holy character (see examples Joshua 22:20 and Psalm 2:12).

c. Nearly 20 places in the Old Testament find God expressing His wrath as the Holy Just Judge over the nations (for instance, Jeremiah 10:10). 

d. As we survey the remainder of the Old Testament, one surprisingly finds God’s wrath as a motivating attribute in prompting people to seek His overtures of grace in mercy. In 11 spots we find God’s wrath as a black cloth highlighting His true desire to show mercy (examples are Isaiah 63:3,5; Jeremiah 32:37). In 17 places God gives ample warning to people to repent and turn from their wickedness as well as how they can clearly avoid His wrath (such examples are 2 Chronicles 19:10 and Ezekiel 5:13,15).

e.  One major category of God’s wrath that gradually develops throughout the Old Testament and tends to be the dominate focal point of God’s wrath in the New Testament is the final or eschatological wrath He will pour out at final judgment. Old Testament examples of eschatological wrath are found in Zephaniah 1:15, 18 and New Testament passages involving New Testament wrath entail such texts as Matthew 3:7; Luke 3:7; 21:23; John 3:36; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 5:19 and at least a dozen passages in the Book of Revelation.   

f. As a final observation on the meaning of the word wrath in the Biblical material, we discover that the New Testament envisions law enforcement as a Divinely ordained means of carrying out God’s justice or wrath in a temporal sense in such passages as Romans 12:9; 13:4 and Hebrews 11:27. 

There could be other comments made, but the sampling of above texts should suffice to help us see the various ways in which God’s wrath is expressed in the Biblical material. To summarize what is going on in Romans 1:18 with respect to the word “wrath”, we could classify Paul’s reference as having to do with present wrath that, if unheeded, will find connection to that ultimate wrath of God in the final judgment. To offer a plain definition of “wrath” as read in Romans 1:18 and other similar texts, God’s wrath is: “God’s measured, holy and justified aggression against mankind’s unholy and unjustified sin.”

Theologically understanding God’s wrath in relationship to His attributes and actions

With the Biblical and exegetical material above, how do we fit God’s wrath in our overall understanding of God Himself? The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, page 1304, has the following to say about God’s wrath: 

“In the total biblical portrayal the wrath of God is not so much an emotion or angry frame of mind as it is the settled opposition of His holiness to evil. Accordingly, the wrath of God is seen in its effects, in God’s punishment of sin in this life and in the next. These inflictions include pestilence, death, exile, destruction of wicked cities and nations, hardening of hearts, and the cutting off of the people of God for idolatry or unbelief. The day of wrath is God’s final judgment against sin, his irrevocable condemnation of impenitent sinners.”

Charles Hodge in his Systematic Theology sheds particular light on why Paul is including God’s wrath in Romans:

“The whole argument of the Apostle in his Epistle to the Romans is founded on the principle that justice is a divine attribute distinct from benevolence. His argument is: God is just. All men are sinners. All, therefore, are guilty, i.e., under condemnation. Therefore no man can be justified, i.e., pronounced not guilty, on the ground of his character or conduct. Sinners cannot satisfy justice. But what they could not do, Christ, the Eternal Son of God, clothed in our nature, has done for them. He has brought in everlasting righteousness, which meets all the demands of the law. All those who renounce their own righteousness, and trust to the righteousness of Christ, God justifies and saves.

When we think of God’s wrath, it truly is His justice in action. God’s just and righteous wrath is the negative expression of goodness in hatred of whatever opposes or tramples upon His righteous character. If we think of God’s wrath as a counterpart opposite to love, God’s love is His positive expression of goodness that supports that which is in lines with His righteous character.

God’s attributes all hang together and function together like a perfect orchestra. Theologians often refer to what is Divine simplicity, which means that God and His attributes are one-in-the same. If you monkey around in trying to alter any of God’s attributes, you no-longer have the God of the Bible.

Illustrating how God’s attributes function together like One, Perfect Orchestra 

In orchestral music, when a composer wants to enrich the music, the component of “counter-point” will be added resulting in two different melodies coming together into one harmonic whole. One fine example of “counterpoint” is in the following link to Mozart’s “The D. Major Quintet”. Thankfully, the following video link has helpful colors and arrows to aid the listener in identifying the concept of counterpoint here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQbxsGtyc2g.

If one listens to such awe inspiring music (whether Mozart or the musical scores of the Star Wars movies), the richness of such music will include this element of counterpoint. When we focus on the God of sacred scripture, God is the quintessential Perfect Being that includes uninterrupted counterpoint among all His attributes. If God did not have wrath among His attributes, we would have a God that loves everything: including sin, injustice and unrighteousness. God’s wrath, we could say, is the counterpoint to His love. The moment we omit wrath, we omit God! Why? Since God is His attributes, we cannot avoid doing away with the Biblical conception of God. Just as unthinkable it would be to eliminate God’s love and expect there to remain the Biblical God, so it is with love’s counterpoint attribute of wrath. 

Life-practical considerations of the wrath of God for today

We have looked at the meaning of God’s wrath in Romans 1:18 and the wider Biblical material as well as the theological significance of God’s wrath. In this final segment of today’s post, we want to draw our discussion to a close by consider the applicability of God’s wrath to our lives. 

First, we need to understand how God’s wrath aids in understanding the urgency of the great commission in sharing the Gospel. The Apostle Paul doesn’t hold off mentioning God’s wrath until the end of Romans, instead, wrath is the first thing mentioned in the main body of Paul’s theological exposition of the Gospel. If one were to outline Romans 1:18-2:4 (which represents Paul’s first leg of arguments in showing why people need the Gospel), we could offer the following:

I. God’s Warning From Heaven. Romans 1:18

II. General Truths Everyone Knows. Romans 1:19-20

A. God’s power or “omni-attributes”. 

B. God’s character or “moral attributes, like goodness, holiness, wrath.”

III. Great Crisis Impacting Everyone. Romans 1:21-2:3

A. Preference of things over God. 1:21-24

B. Preference of lies to truth. 1:25-26a

C. Preference of man’s plans to God’s purpose. 1:26b-28

D. Preference of their own destruction to God’s best. 1:29-2:3

IV. God’s remedy you must receive. Romans 2:4

If Paul did not include God’s wrath in his presentation of the Gospel, it would not make sense why the Gospel is such good news. After all, what are we “saved from”? Romans 5:9-10 plainly states that we are saved from God’s wrath. Thus, wrath helps us to better understand the urgency of the great commission. 

Secondly, God’s wrath and the pressure it places on a man’s moral sense to turn about from their course of persistent sin points us to God’s mercy. As we saw already in the survey of the above Biblical texts on wrath, many texts feature God’s wrath as a backdrop to put into sharp relief His ultimate desire to see men repent. Passages such as John 3:16 and 2 Peter 3:9 are great texts on the mercy and grace of God. However, those verses appear as diamonds in contexts where the black silk cloth of God’s wrath is pressing the need to repent, believe and be saved. If anything, the wrath of God highlights for those whose hearts are opening to the truth the other attributes of God (such as mercy, love, grace). As we noted already, we cannot conceive of God’s attributes as isolated from one another. 

As a final point of application, God’s fair warnings of wrath show us how just and loving He truly is towards those who otherwise do not deserve His grace. Warnings are not intended to harm, but help. If God’s wrath were not being revealed from heaven at this current time, man could have an excuse. Luke writes in Acts 14:16-17In the generations gone by He permitted all the nations to go their own ways; 17 and yet He did not leave Himself without witness, in that He did good and gave you rains from heaven and fruitful seasons, satisfying your hearts with food and gladness.” 

God is giving space at this current time. Moreover, God’s wrath was poured out on His Son to secure the safe harbor for sinners to flee to in what will be the ultimate wrath to come (Romans 5:9-10; 1 Thessalonians 1:10). In such texts as these, we understand God demonstrating His love. Again, if we didn’t have God’s wrath, the Gospel wouldn’t make sense.

Closing thoughts

Today we took a closer look at God’s wrath in Romans 1:18. We first saw how it is developed in Romans 1:18 and the wider Biblical witness through a combination of word studies and the Biblical material. We suggested the following meaning of wrath: “God’s measured, holy and justified aggression against mankind’s unholy and unjustified sin.” Secondly, we explored how God’s wrath is theological significant in light of His other attributes, His character and the overall Biblical portrayal of God. Lastly, we considered some life-practical ramifications of God’s wrath, noting how it adds urgency to evangelism, highlights God’s other attributes like mercy and makes sense of the Gospel. May we in the church be not ashamed of God’s wrath. May we compassionately and honestly include this important attribute of God in our conversations with people about Him. As we grow in our walk with God, may we praise Him for His salvation in saving those who believe, as a result of His grace, from the wrath to come. As theologian R.C Sproul has noted in times past: “We are saved from God, by God, for God.” 

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